Corruption came from the Latin word “corrumpere” which means to break away to destroy. According transparency International and corruption means the misuse of the entrusted authority or power for private gains.And in other words corruption is the unethical conduct by a person entrust with a position of authority to acquire personal benefits at the expense of others. Corruption is posing one of the biggest threats to the well being of the society. But it affects the whole society and degrades the quality of life. The devastating effects of Corruption are mostly by the poor people . In India there has been the of corruption and it was accept as the part of life. And the Corruption is found from lowest to the highest levels of government offices in India.Therefore, Corruption is slowly taking all the strength and from the country. now we will see the TYPES OF CORRUPTION.
Delayed justice: There is a saying “justice delayed is justice denie.” This principle is applies here by the judiciary in few countries. The victim is allow to suffer due to the delay in justice. And occurs in both criminal and civil cases. The cases which have to close fast are kept for prolonged periods. And this leads to suffering by the persons involved in the cases. There are even cases where the common waiting for the justice undergoes sever mental stress and die of it. This delay in many ways could be due to deliberate shelving of cases by the judges. If a case has reach the closing stage, they postpone the judgement to deliver after court holidays. For the judge and it could be a vacation. But, for those involve it would be a nightmares they have spend time in anxiety with outcome of the verdict.
types of corruption
The major types of corruption are as follows:
TYPES OF CORRUPTION:
The Petty corruption : Petty corruption occurs at a small scale and takes place at the implementation end of public services and where the public officials meet the public. But Petty corruption is generally bribery paid in connection with the implementation of existing rules and regulations. So thus different from grand corruption or political corruption. It is generally done to obtain favors or speedy completion of routine government procedures. This form of corruption is usually pursued by junior and middle level officials. But in Petty corruption modest sums of money is usually involve and it has also been called as “low level corruption”.AND THE ANOTHER TYPE OF CORRUPTION IS GRAND CORRUPTION.
The Grand corruption : Grand corruption occurs at the highest levels of government at the policy formulation stage. But it is not so much to the amount of money involve but the level in which it takes place makes it grand corruption. And it is generally synonymous to political corruption and it affects are over a long period of time and harms the resources of the country significantly.Therefore, it also results in increasing the poverty in the country and apart from these negative effects but it also breaks the morale of the people. Ex: Colgate Scam and 2G Scam etc.
The Business Corruption : Business corruption was not regard as crime but accelerate business process.And it includes insider tax evasion and a irregularities. Initially and it was not consider as the corruption .but now International the Business corruption under the category of corruption. Ex Satyam case and Rajat Gupta insider trading etc.
The Political corruption : Political corruption is the misuse of entrusted public office or authority by the politicians for private gains and Political corruption is use synonymously with “grand” or high level corruption. so distinguished from bureaucratic or petty corruption because of the amount of money involve and its long term effects. And political corruption takes place at the high levels of the political system. But political corruption not only leads to the misallocation of resources, but it also affects the decision making process. So the laws and regulations are abuse by the politicians to fit their interests. And also the POLITICAL CORRUPTION is the use of power by government officials or their network contack for privant gain. The form of corruption vary,but include cronyism,influence,graft and patronage. And Over time, corruption has been define differently and the ex is in a simple context.
The Systemic corruption : Systemic corruption or Endemic corruption is the well organized system of corruption in which generally whole department is involve. It is primarily due to the weaknesses of an organization or process.But In this type of corruption and a person will have clear idea of whom to bribe and what amount of bribe. It should offer and is confident that he will receive the favors in return. And the amount of bribe then flows though the whole system from lower to higher level.
The Sporadic corruption : Sporadic corruption or individual corruption is the opposite of systemic corruption. by the individual and the whole system is not involve. And it occurs irregularly and therefore it does not hreaten the economy of the country.But it is not crippling and but it can seriously undermine moral and sap the economy resource.And also this corruption is opposite yo the systematic.
causes of corruption
The Causes of Corruption:
- Decline of Moral values.
- Lack of Transparency.
- scarcity of Accountability.
- shortage of job opportunities, require of independent detective agencies.
- Absence of strict and fast punishment mechanism.
- Low pay scales.Unhealthy competition.
- Lack of unity in public to fight corruption and Attitude of taking shortcuts.
- Corruption has been accept as part of life.
- more social status granted to corrupt persons in society.
- Sanskritization of corruption
- High rate of unemployment.
Effects of corruption :
- Lack of development.
- Increase in Poverty.scarcity of FDI.
- Lack of respect for rules.
- shortage of proper justice.
- Lack of faith and trust.
And the effect of corruption is in election and in the legislature reduce accountability. distorts represent in policy make so corruption in the judiciary compromises the rule of law;and corruption in public.